Arraignment: An arraignment is not a trial, it is where you are read the charges and asked to enter a plea (guilty, not guilty). It is at arraignment that the first court date is usually scheduled. Make sure that you have an attorney present at your arraignment.
Burden of Proof: The party that files the complaint carries the burden of proof, which is proving that there is enough evidence for a case. In many cases where a scam victim is being charged with trying to defraud the bank and being a willing participate in the scam, the only "proof" that the prosecution has is that the defendant presented a counterfeit document.
Discovery: The discovery is the pre-trial exchange of information between attorneys.
Indictment: This is a document that basically sums up the case . . . the charges, the people involved, the court in which the case will be heard.